What is Hubs ?

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A hub can be defined as a multiple port repeater. A hub consists of 2 to 24 ports and may be called a workgroup hub. When data is received, the hub then retransmits that data out on all the other ports. Physical connectivity is achieved via a twisted-pair cable.
There are active and passive hubs. Active hubs have a separate power supply to assist with the gain of a signal before it is forwarded out all connected ports. Gain is an electrical term used to identify the ratio of signal output to signal input of a system. A power signal increased by a factor of 10 would indicate a gain of 10. Passive hubs do not regenerate the incoming signal
Although they are very inexpensive, hubs may not be the best solution if you require a more efficient use of bandwidth and its distribution among ports. Traffic may become congested because of collisions on the network. Traffic is being forwarded out on all ports of a single collision domain. To decrease congestion, the network administrator might consider replacing the hub with a switch.




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